11 Aug, 2015

# PetroSkills Instructors welcomed into SPE’s ‘Legion of Honor’

Two PetroSkills instructors, Mr. Richard Schroeder and Dr. George Slater, were recently welcomed into the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Legion of Honor. Both have held their SPE membership for 50 consecutive years. SPE honored each with a commemorative plaque and exempt dues for the remainder of their membership.

3 Aug, 2015

# Effect of Relative Density (Specific Gravity) on the Saturated Water Content of Sweet Natural Gases

In this Tip of the Month (TOTM), we will study the effect of relative density (Specific Gravity, SG) on the saturated water content of sweet natural gases. The results of this study include the water content of sweet natural gases as a function of relative density in the range of 0.60 to 0.80. Four temperatures of 4.4, 23.9, 37.8 and 149 °C (40, 75, 100, and 300 °F) were considered. For each temperature, the saturated water content was calculated for pressures of 1724, 3448, 6897, and 13 793 kPaa (250, 400, 100 and 2000 psia).

6 Jul, 2015

# How to Estimate Compressor Efficiency

In this article, we will demonstrate how to determine the efficiency of a compressor from measured flow rate, composition, suction and discharge temperatures and pressures. A rigorous calculation based on an equation of state and a shortcut method are considered and the results are compared. From a calculation viewpoint alone, the compressor power calculation is particularly sensitive to the specification of mass flow rate, suction temperature and pressure, and discharge temperature and pressure. A compressor is going to operate under varying values of the variables affecting its performance. Thus the most difficult part of a compressor calculation is specification of a reasonable range for each variable and not the calculation itself.

6 Jul, 2015

# 'Building a High-Performance Facilities Engineering Organization' is now available for download

This paper presents a methodology for constructing a Facilities Engineering organization for an Upstream-Midstream operating company. The methodology encompasses 7 main elements.

10 Jun, 2015

# PetroSkills distributes insert in EAGE publication, ‘First Break’

PetroSkills recently partnered with the European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers (EAGE) to incorporate workforce development solutions, in the form of an insert, into their monthly publication. The EAGE insert, which will be distributed to over 25,000 subscribers of ‘First Break’, will contain features on Geoscience Courses and PetroSkills Field Trip courses that extend learning into the field. The Executive Brief, ‘Developing an Exceptional Workforce: Doing More with Less’ is also featured as a free download. The on-demand webinar ‘Hilbert Transform Attributes – Unplugged’ covering select topics from the AVO, Inversion and Attributes...

2 Jun, 2015

# Effect of Chemical Additive on Crude Oil Pipeline Pressure Drop

For transportation of crude oil, the pumping power requirement varies as the crude oil viscosity changes. Increasing °API or line average temperature reduces the crude oil viscosity. The reduction of viscosity results in higher Reynolds number, lower friction factor and in effect, lower pumping power requirements. To reduce pressure drop and increase pipeline capacity, oil industry has utilized drag reducing agents. Drag-reducing agents, or drag-reducing polymers, are additives in pipelines that reduce turbulence in a pipe. Usually used in petroleum pipelines, they increase the pipeline capacity by reducing turbulence and therefore allowing the oil to flow more efficiently. In addition to drag reducing agents, another group of chemicals called “Incorporative Additives”, which reduces crude oil viscosity, may be used. In this Tip of the Month, we will demonstrate the effect of an incorporative additive on crude oil viscosity and consequently on pressure drop for crude oil pipeline transportation.

28 May, 2015

# Seismic Interpretation Video Series Available Now

Have you had a chance to check out our new video series, presented by Dr. Tom Temples? This three-week long video series covers select topics from our Seismic Interpretation course. Upon signing up for the series, a new episode will be delivered directly to your inbox each week.

4 May, 2015

# Benefits of Standby Time in Adsorption Dehydration Process

Molecular sieves are used upstream of turboexpander units and LNG facilities to dehydrate natural gas to <0.1 ppmv. In the natural gas industry, the molecular sieves employ heat to drive off the adsorbed water. The cyclical heating/cooling of the adsorbent results in a capacity decline due to a gradual loss of crystalline structure and/or pore closure. A more troublesome cause of capacity decline is contamination of the molecular sieves due to liquid carryover from the upstream separation equipment. Because of the capacity decline curves flatten out, available standby time may be able to extend the life of a molecular sieve unit when your unit is operating on fixed cycle times. Other operating options include: running each cycle to water breakthrough; and, reducing the cycle times in discreet steps throughout the life of the adsorbent. To illustrate the benefits of standby time, a case study was evaluated and the results are presented.

10 Apr, 2015

# Estimating Sour Gas Water Content by New Correlations and Simplified Charts

In April's "Tip of the Month," we will present a set of correlations and simplified charts for estimating sour gas water content directly without having to look up the water content of sweet gas. These correlations are based on the Wichert and Wichert chart (Figure 20-9 of the GPSA data book) and Wagner and Pruss water vapor equation and Bukacek correlation for estimating sweet gas water content. The proposed correlations are valid for pressures up to 24 MPa (3500 psia), temperatures up to 175°C (350°F) and H2S equivalent concentrations of up to 50 mole %. The accuracy of the proposed correlations was compared against limited experimental data and a rigorous method using an equation of state.