7 Oct, 2014

Impact of Gas-Oil Ratio (GOR) on Crude Oil Pressure Drop in Gathering Systems

In the June 2008 Tip of the Month (TOTM), we demonstrated how general-purpose process simulation programs can be used to simulate gas dominated two-phase pipelines. In the August 2008 TOTM, we discussed the value of the simple Flanigan correlation and how it can be used to model and analyze the behavior of a wet gas transmission pipeline. The results of the Flanigan correlation were compared with more rigorous calculation methods for multiphase pipelines. In this TOTM, we will study the impact of gas-oil ratio (GOR) on pressure drop in crude oil gathering systems. Specifically, pressure drop along a gathering line for nominal pressures of 690, 3450, and 6900 kPag (100, 500, and 1000 psig) and nominal pipe size of 101.6 and 152.4 mm (4 and 6 inches) was calculated using multiphase rigorous method from commercial simulator. The calculated pressure drops are presented in graphical format as a function of the oil stock tank volume flow rate and GOR. Variation of thermophysical properties was considered.

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3 Sep, 2014

Lean Sweet Natural Gas Water Content Correlation

In the October, November, December 2007 and February 2014 Tips of the Month (TOTM), we studied in detail the water phase behaviors of sweet and sour natural gases and acid gas systems. We also evaluated the accuracy of different methods for estimating the water content of sour natural gas and acid gas systems. The water vapor content of natural gases in equilibrium with water is commonly estimated from Figure 6.1 of Campbell book or Figure 20.4 of Gas Processors and Suppliers Association (GPSA), including corrections for the molecular weight (relative density) of gas and salinity of water. In this article, we will present two new correlations for estimating the water content of lean and sweet natural gases. The performance of the proposed correlations is compared with the rigorous simulation and shortcut method software and other correlations.

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22 Apr, 2014

Simple Equations to Approximate Changes to the Properties of Crude Oil with Changing Temperature

This article describes simple equations to approximate changes to the properties of crude oil with changing temperature. Changes in crude oil density and specific heat, or heat capacity, can be estimated from graphs and/or more elaborate computer simulation. The latter generally requires access to a process simulator and characterization data for the crude oil. A suitable, tuned computer model is likely the most accurate method of estimating the fluid properties, but is not always available. Direct laboratory measurement is also possible if facilities and oil samples are available and a high degree of accuracy is required.

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11 Feb, 2014

Acid Gas-Water Content

This post goes over the acid gas-water phase behavior system. Specifically, different methods of predicting water content of acid gas systems are evaluated based on experimental data from the literature. Water content diagrams compatible with the experimental data for pure CO2, Pure H2S, pure CH4 and their mixtures are generated and presented. These charts can be used for facility type calculations and trouble shooting.

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16 Dec, 2013

Estimating TEG Vaporization Losses in TEG Dehydration Unit

In this Tip of The Month (TOTM), the effect of striping gas rate and triethylene glycol (TEG) circulation ratio on the TEG vaporization loss from the regenerator top and contactor top is investigated. Specifically, this study focuses on the variation of TEG vaporization losses with reboiler pressure, TEG circulation ratio and stripping gas rate. By performing a rigorous computer simulation of TEG regeneration at reboiler pressures of 110.3 kPaa (16 psia) and 524.1 kPaa (76 psia), several charts for quick estimation of TEG vaporization losses from regenerator top and contactor, which are needed for facilities type calculations are developed. In addition, the effect of contactor temperature on the TEG vaporization losses for a case study is shown.

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